BRIEF SUMMARIES: United Nations Resolutions, 1947-present
Brief Summaries of UN Resolutions - Security Council, 1970-1979
Resolution 279 (12 May 1970) -- Demands the immediate withdrawal of all Israeli armed forces from Lebanese territory.
Resolution 280 (19 May 1970) -- Condemns the Israeli military attack on Lebanon which it believes to be premeditated, and deplores Israel's violations of UN resolutions 262 and 270.
Resolution 285 (9 May 1970) -- The Security Council demands the complete and immediate withdrawal of all Israeli armed forces from Lebanese territory.
Resolution 298 (25 September 1971) -- Noting resolutions against Israel’s efforts to change the status of Jerusalem, the Security Council deplores their continuing violation by Israel, and “confirms in the clearest possible terms” that all legislative and administrative measures taken by Israel to change status of Jerusalem, including expropriating and then incorporating land and transferring own population are “totally invalid”, and urgently calls upon Israel to rescind all measures and take no further steps to change status of Jerusalem which prejudices rights of the inhabitants and rights of international community, and a just and lasting peace.
Resolution 313 (28 February 1972) -- “Demands that Israel immediately desist and refrain from any ground and air military action against Lebanon and forthwith withdraw all its military forces from Lebanese territory”.
Resolution 316 (26 June 1972) -- Deploring the tragic loss of life, and gravely concerned with Israel’s failure to comply with UN Security Council Resolutions 262, 270, 280, 285, and 313 with their violations of Lebanese territory, the Security Council calls upon Israel to strictly abide by the above resolutions, condemns and deplores Israel’s “repeated attacks of the Israeli forces on Lebanese territory and population in violation of the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and Israel’s obligations thereunder”, and expresses strong desire that Israel take steps to release all Syrian and Lebanese military personnel “abducted by Israeli armed forces on 21 June 1972 on Lebanese territory”. If Israel does not comply with the above resolutions or release the personnel mentioned, then the Security Council will consider harsher action.
Resolution 317 (21 June 1972) -- Deplores that Israel continues non-compliance with Res. 316, and calls on Israel to comply with UN Security Council Resolution 316.
Resolution 331 (20 April 1973) -- Decides to schedule a meeting with the UN Special Representative to discuss the overall situation in the Middle East.
Resolution 332 (21 April 1973) -- Gravely concerned with the deterioration of the situation from the resolution violations, the Security Council expresses deep concern and condemns the violence and loss of life, condemns repeated Israeli attacks, and violation of Lebanon territorial integrity and sovereignty, which are in contravention of the UN Charter, Armistice Agreement, and the cease-fire resolutions, and calls upon Israel to desist any further attacks on Lebanon.
Resolution 337 (15 August 1973) -- Gravely concerned that the hijacking is serious interference with international aviation and violation of UN Charter, and recognizing the action could have jeopardized lives of passengers and crew, and violates international conventions safeguarding civil aviation, the Security Council condemns Israel for violating Lebanon’s sovereignty and territorial integrity with hijacking, and considers that these actions violate 1949 Armistice Agreement, cease-fire resolutions, provisions of UN Charter, and international conventions of civil aviation, and principles of international law and morality, and thus calls on International Civil Aviation Organization to reference UN Resolutions when planning measures to protect international aviation, and calls on Israel to desist from further violations of Lebanon sovereignty and territorial integrity, and endangering civil aviation, and if Israel does not, then the Council will consider steps necessary to enforce its resolutions.
Resolution 338 (22 October 1973) -- Calls upon all parties to cease fire within 12 hours implementing UN Security Council Resolution 242, and that immediately and concurrently negotiations should begin to establish a just and durable peace.
Resolution 339 (23 October 1973) -- In order to implement UN Security Council resolution 338, the Security Council confirms that all sides should cease fire and return to the positions they held at time of cease-fire, and requests the Secretary-General to immediately dispatch UN observers to battlefield.
Resolution 340 (25 October 1973) -- Noting Secretary-General’s report of violations of UN Security Council Resolutions 338 and 339, and that the UN observers have not been able to take up positions in the combat zones, the Security Council again demands an immediate and complete cease-fire, and that all parties return to their original positions that they held at the time, requests Secretary-General to increase the number of observers, requests all member-nations to support the implementation of the cease-fire and placement of observers, and decides to set up a UN Emergency Force (UNEF) for immediate deployment to the region.
Resolution 341 (27 October 1973) -- Decides the UN Emergency Force will operate for 6 months and then be reviewed by the Council concerning an extension.
Resolution 344 (15 December 1973) -- For implementing UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, requests Secretary-General give full UN support to the Middle East peace conference starting soon in Geneva.
Resolution 346 (8 April 1974) -- Decides to extend the charter of the UN Emergency Force another 6 months.
Resolution 347 (24 April 1974) -- Condemns Israel’s violation of Lebanon’s territory and sovereignty, and requests Israel do no more, and calls upon Israel to release all kidnapped Lebanese civilians.
Resolution 350 (31 May 1974) -- The Security Council welcomes “agreement on disengagement” between Israel and Syria as per UN Security Council Resolution 338 (1973). Decides to start up a UN Disengagement Observer Force for an initial 6 month period subject to review and renewal by Council.
Resolution 362 (23 October 1974) -- Noting that the Secretary-General’s opinion is that the UN Emergency Force (UNEF) is still needed because even though relative peace exists between Egypt and Israel, the “underlying problems are unresolved”, and thus decides that the UNEF Charter should be extended for 6 more months. Also reaffirms UNEF must continue functioning equally in the Egypt-Israel sector without preference or prejudice amongst the different parties involved.
Resolution 363 (29 November 1974) -- Reaffirming that the disengagement agreement between the parties is a constructive step toward implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 338, the Security Council calls upon all parties to fully immediately implement Resolution 338 and renews the charter for the UN Disengagement Observer Force for another 6 months.
Resolution 368 (17 April 1975) -- Renews UN Emergency Force 3 more months.
Resolution 369 (28 May 1975) -- Reaffirming that the two disengagement agreements are steps toward implementation of UN Security Council UN Security Council Resolution 338, the Security Council renews the UN Disengagement Observer Force charter for another 6 months.
Resolution 371 (24 July 1975) -- Renews UN Emergency Force 3 more months.
Resolution 378 (23 October 1975) -- Renews UN Emergency Force 12 more months.
Resolution 381 (30 November 1975) -- renews UN Disengagement Observer Force another 6 months.
Resolution 390 (28 May 1976) -- renews UN Disengagement Observer Force another 6 months.
Resolution 396 (22 October 1976) -- calls upon all parties to continue implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews UN Emergency Force 12 more months.
Resolution 398 (30 November 1976) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews the UNDOF mandate another 6 months.
Resolution 408 (26 May 1977) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews the UNDOF mandate another 6 months.
Resolution 416 (21 October 1977) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews the mandate of the UN Emergency Force for 1 year.
Resolution 420 (30 November 1977) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews the UN Disengagement Observer Force mandate another 6 months.
Resolution 425 (19 March 1978) -- Disturbed by the deteriorating situation, the Security Council calls for strict respect of the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon, and thus calls upon Israel to immediately cease military action and withdraw from Lebanon. Further, in light of Lebanon’s request, the Security Council establishes the UN Interim Force to confirm Israel’s withdrawal.
Resolution 426 (19 March 1978) -- The Security Council establishes the UN Interim Force for an initial period of 6 months.
Resolution 427 (3 May 1978) -- Deplores attacks on the UN Interim Force, and calls on all to respect the Force. Approves increasing strength of UN Interim Force from 4000 to 6000. Takes note of Israeli withdrawal so far, and calls on Israel to complete its withdrawal.
Resolution 429 (31 May 1978) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renew UNDOF mandate another 6 months.
Resolution 434 (18 September 1978) -- Commending UN Interim Force (UNIFIL) for its performance in implementing UN Security Council Resolution 425, and grieved at loss of life of its member-troops. Noting the obstacles the Force faces, and in response to Lebanon’s difficulty re-establishing control over its own territory (as per Resolution 425), the Security Council renews the mandate of the UN Interim Force for 4 more months and calls upon Israel, Lebanon and others to cooperate with the efforts of the UNIFIL to implement UN Security Council Resolutions 425 and 426.
Resolution 436 (6 October 1978) -- Calls upon all states involved in the conflict to cease fire and respect Lebanon’s territory and sovereignty. Calls upon all states involved to allow International Committee of the Red Cross into combat area to evacuate wounded and provide humanitarian assistance.
Resolution 438 (23 October 1978) -- Recalling the UN Secretary-General’s view that the only real solution for fulfilling UN Security Council Resolution 338 will be a comprehensive peace plan, the Security Council thus renews the mandate of the UN Emergency Force for 9 more months.
Resolution 441 (30 November 1978) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews UN Disengagement Observer Force mandate for 6 more months.
Resolution 444 (19 January 1979) -- Condemns Israel’s lack of cooperation with the UN Interim Force, and Israel employing irregular armed groups in Lebanon, and thus renews UN Interim Force 5 more months.
Resolution 446 (22 March 1979) -- Affirming that the Geneva Conventions relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949) are applicable to the Arab occupied territories by Israel including Jerusalem, and that the Israeli settlements in those territories are not valid, and are a serious obstacle to peace. The Security Council also strongly deplores the failure of Israel to abide by UN Security Council Resolutions 237, 252, and 298, UN General Assembly Resolutions 2253 and 2254, and the consensus statement of the Security Council President (Official Records of the SC, 31st Year, 1969th meeting). Thus the Security Council "calls once more upon Israel, as the occupying power, to abide scrupulously by the Geneva Conventions relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 12 August 1949, to rescind its previous measures and to desist from taking any action which would result in changing the legal status and geographical nature and materially affecting the demographic composition of the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, and in particular, not to transfer parts of its own civilian population into the occupied Arab territories", and thus establishes a Security Council Commission "… to examine the situation relating to settlements in the Arab territories...".
Resolution 449 (30 May 1979) -- Calls on all parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews mandate of the UN Disengagement Observer Force for 6 more months.
Resolution 450 (14 June 1979) -- Strongly deploring continuing violence, displacement and property damage in Lebanon, and continuing obstacles to the UN Interim Force (UNIFIL) implementing UN Security Council Resolution 425, the Security Council calls upon Israel to cease its acts against the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and political independence of Lebanon, including its assistance to “irresponsible armed groups”. The Security Council also reaffirms the General Armistice Agreement (1949) between Lebanon and Israel, and calls upon the parties to reactivate the Mixed Armistice Committee to work with the UN Truce Supervision Organization. Renews charter of the UNIFIL 6 more months and urges all member-states to influence, where they can, the involved states to support the UN Forces working toward peace in the region.
Resolution 452 (20 July 1979) -- The Security Council strongly deplores Israeli lack of cooperation with the Security Council Commission studying the Israeli settlements in the Arab occupied territories. Considering that Israeli settlement policy has no validity, and is a violation of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949). Drawing attention to the Israeli settlement policy as an obstacle to the peace process and concerned about the impact of the settlements on the Arab population, and thus emphasizing the need to confront this policy and protect property ceased under it, and bearing in mind the status of Jerusalem and necessity to “protect and preserve the unique spiritual and religious dimension of the Holy Places in that city" the Security Council accepts recommendations of the Commission. And again the Security Council calls on Israel to stop the establishment of settlements in Arab territories.
Resolution 456 (30 November 1979) -- Calls upon all the involved parties to immediately implement UN Security Council Resolution 338, and thus renews the UN Disengagement Observer Force mandate for 6 more months.
Resolution 459 (19 December 1979) -- Takes note of Lebanon’s efforts to cooperate with the UN in regaining control over its own land as per UN Security Council Resolution 425, and its efforts to protect historic sites around Tyre as per the Hague Conventions of 1954. Calls for a cease-fire, and cooperation of the involved states with the UN Interim Force (UNIFIL). Decides to renew the UNIFIL charter for 6 more months. Reaffirms the General Armistice agreement of 1949 between Lebanon and Israel, and to facilitate implementation of resolution 425, decides to reactivate the Mixed Armistice Commission to support efforts of UN Truce Supervision Organization. Urges all member-states to exert influence where they can, on the involved parties to cooperate with the UNIFIL.
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BRIEF SUMMARIES: United Nations Resolutions, 1947-present
(C) Israel Law Resoource Center, February, 2007.